Additional Tier 1

capital mainly constituted by debt instruments convertible into shares (hybrids) in case of a contingent event (usually when the CET1 ratio drops below a certain value).

Advanced IRB approach

all the risk parameters are internally estimated by the bank, including CCF (credit conversion factors) to calculate the EAD.

Advanced Risk Management

programme to accelerate the implementation of strategic projects to improve risk management capacity and control.


(Asset liability management) a series of techniques and procedures to ensure correct decision-making on investments and funding at the entity, taking into consideration the interrelation between the various on- and off-balance sheet items.


 (Asset Quality Review): asset quality review exercise performed by the European Central Bank.

Attributable profit

the portion of consolidated profit that corresponds to owners of the Group’s ordinary shares.



the use of historical data to supervise the return on risk models.

Basel III

a set of amendments to the Basel II regulations, published in December 2010, which came into force in January 2013 and will be gradually implemented until January 2019.

Basic IRB approach

all the risk parameters are determined by the regulator except for the probability of default, which is internally estimated by the bank. The credit conversion factors required for calculating the EAD are determined by the regulator.


Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.


Bank for International Payments.

BIS Ratio

Measures the solvency of companies by calculating their eligible equity (core capital, preferred shares and subordinated debt) as a percentage of risk weighted assets. The minimum requirement is 8%.


(Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive): approved in 2014, it establishes the European framework for bank recovery and resolution in order to minimise the cost for taxpayers.


Capital gains

Extraordinary income not generated by the Bank's normal activity.


 (Conservation buffer) a capital buffer equal to 2.5% of riskweighted assets (and comprised fully of high quality instruments) to absorb losses generated from the business.


(Comprehensive capital analysis review) the Federal Reserve’s evaluation of the planning and capital adequacy process of the US’s main banks.


(Counter cyclical buffer) buffer whose objective is to mitigate or prevent cyclical risks arising from excessive growth in lending at aggregate level. Accordingly, the CCB is designed to build up capital buffers during expansionary phases with a dual objective: to bolster the banking system’s solvency and stabilise the credit cycle.


(Central Counterparty Clearing House) responsible for clearing and settlement, facilitating trading in shares and derivatives in international markets.


(Credit default swap)  derivatives contract that transfers the credit risk of financial instrument from the buyer (who receives the credit protection) to the seller (who guarantees the instrument’s solvency).


CET1 calculated according to the transitional arrangements in place until 2019.

CET1 phase in

CET1 calculated assuming the full implementation of the Basel III definitions as in 2019.

Clientes empresas vinculados

Clientes vinculados

Clientes particulares vinculados

Clientes vinculados


(Contingent convertible bonds): debt securities convertible into capital if a specified event occurs. AT1 instruments are a type of CoCo.

Common equity

a capital measure that takes into account, among other components, ordinary shares, the share premium and retained earnings. It does not include preferred shares.

Common Equity Tier 1

an entity’s highest quality capital, consisting of equity mainly constituted by ordinary shares and retained earnings and excluding preferred shares.

Comprehensive Assessment

Assessment carried out by the ECB together with the EBA and the national supervisors between November 2013 and October 2014 in preparation for the Single Supervisory Mechanism to become fully operational.

Concentration risk

the risk of loss due to large exposures to a small number of debtors to which the entity has lent money.

Core capital ratio

The most demanding indicator of solvency, which relates core capital (mainly capital plus reserves) to risk weighted assets.

Cost of credit

a measure of credit quality, calculated as the ratio between loan-loss provisions and total lending

Coverage of non-performing loans

a risk quality indicator, expressed as the percentage of loans considered as doubtful which are covered by loan-loss provisions.

Coverage Ratio

The level of provisions as a percentage of non-performing loans. These provisions can be of two types: specific ones, derived from specific risks, and generic ones assigned on the basis of the volume and type of financing granted.

Credit risk mitigation

a technique to reduce the credit risk of a transaction by applying coverage such as personal guarantees or collateral.

Credit risk rating

the result of the objective evaluation of the future economic situation of the counterparties based on current features and assumptions. The methodology for assigning ratings depends largely on the type of customer and on the available data. A wide range of methodologies to assess cred


(Customer Relationship Management) systems to manage customer relations.


(Capital Requirements Regulation) and (Capital Requirements Directive) these incorporate European rules to the legal framework of Basel III.


(Commercial Strategic Plan) management model for coordinating the planning and control of loan portfolios at Santander Group, in which all those areas involved in managing portfolios (risk, business, management control, capital, financial management) participate in a comprehensive and coordinated way.


(Credit Valuation Adjustment) valuation adjustment of overthe- counter (OTC) derivatives as a result of the risk associated with the credit exposure assumed by each counterparty.

CVA (Credit Valuation Adjustment)

valuation adjustment of over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives as a result of the risk associated with the credit exposure assumed by each counterparty.



financial instruments that derive their value from the performance of an underlying asset or index, e.g. bonds, currencies or stock market indices.

Digital customers

for Santander a digital customer is an individual or a company who, being a customer of a retail bank, has started to use online banking, mobile banking or both, in the last 30 days.


The part of the profit distributed to shareholders.


Deferred tax assets.

DVA (Debt Valuation Adjustment)

valuation adjustment similar to the CVA, but in this case as a result of the risk with the Group assumed by its counterparties in OTC derivatives.

DVA (Debt Valuation Adjustment)

valuation adjustment similar to the CVA, but in this case as a result of the risk with the Group assumed by its counterparties in OTC derivatives.



(Exposure at default) the amount that the entity could lose in the event of counterparty default.


European Banking Authority (Autoridad Bancaria Europea).


 (European Banking Authority) created in 2010, it began to operate in 2011. The EBA acts as a coordinator between the national entities responsible for safeguarding values such as the financial system’s stability, transparency of markets and financial products, and the protection of bank customers and investors.

ECB Governing Counci

the main decision-making body of the European Central Bank, consisting of all the members of the Executive Board and the governors of the national central banks of the euro zone countries.

Economic capital

the figure that demonstrates to a high degree of certainty the quantity of capital resources the Group needs at a given point in time to absorb unexpected losses arising from its current exposure.


(Enhanced Disclosure Task Force) task force that issues recommendations to enhance the transparency of information that banks disclose to the market.

Efficiency ratio

calculated as the ratio between operating costs and gross income. It measures how many euros an entity needs to spend in order to generate €1 of revenue (an efficiency ratio of 50% means an entity needs to spend €0.5 to generate €1 of revenue).

Efficiency ratio

Operating costs as a percentage of gross income. The lower the figure the more efficient the bank.


(Expected loss) a regulatory calculation of the average amount expected to be lost on an exposure, using a 12-month time horizon. EL is calculated by multiplying probability of default (a percentage) by exposure at default (an amount) and LGD (a percentage).

Environmental footprint

A measure of the impact of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems which determines the need of natural capital.


Earnings per share.


(earnings per share) calculated by dividing a company’s profits for the period by the number of shares comprising its share capital.


(European Systemic Risk Board): the body that has been charged with macroprudential supervision of the European Union’s financial system in order to contribute to preventing or mitigating the systemic risk to financial stability.


the gross amount that the entity could lose if the counterparty is unable to meet its contractual payment obligations, without taking into consideration the impact of any guarantees, credit enhancements or credit risk mitigation transactions.



(Financial Stability Board): international institution that monitors and makes recommendations on the global financial system.

Fully Loaded

denotes full compliance with Basel III capital adequacy requirements (mandatory in 2019).


denotes full compliance with Basel III capital adequacy requirements (mandatory in 2019).



(Global Systemically Important Bank) or SIFI (Systemically Important Financial Institution): a framework is in place to mitigate the possible impact of the insolvency of this type of bank on international financial stability and particular economies.


(Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision): supervisory body of the Basel Committee.

Gross income

The revenues generated by the Bank.



Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process.


Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Report.


International Financial Reporting Standards.


(Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process): internal process to identify, measure, manage and control liquidity implemented by the entity in accordance with article 86 of Directive 2013/36/EU.


(Internal Ratings-based) approach: based on internal ratings to calculate risk-weighted exposures.


initials in Spanish for the Pillar III disclosures report.


(International Swaps and Derivatives Association): the organisation that establishes the framework contracts for over-thecounter (OTC) derivative transactions between financial institutions.



(Joint Supervisory Team): one of the main forms of cooperation between the ECB and the national supervisors.

JST (Joint Supervisory Team)

one of the main forms of cooperation between the ECB and the national supervisors.



(Liquidity Coverage Ratio): a ratio that ensures that a bank has an adequate stock of unencumbered high quality liquid assets that can be converted, easily and immediately, into cash in private markets, in order to meet its liquidity needs for a 30 calendar day liquidity stress scenario.

Leverage ratio

a complementary (non-risk based) regulatory capital measure that attempts to guarantee the financial resilience and strength of entities in terms of indebtedness. The ratio is calculated by dividing Tier 1 eligible capital by exposure.

Leverage Ratio / Ratio de apalancamiento

medida regulatoria (no basada en riesgo) complementaria al capital que trata de garantizar la solidez y fortaleza nanciera de las entidades en términos de endeudamiento. Esta ratio se de ne como el cociente entre los recursos propios computables Tier1 y la exposición.


(Loss Given Default): that part of EAD not recovered at the end of the loan recovery process. It is equal to 1 minus the recovery rate (i.e: LGD=1-recovery rate). The definition of loss used to estimate the LGD must be a definition of economic loss, not an accounting loss.

Loyal customers

Those customers who regard us as their main bank. The requirements for a client to be considered as loyal depend on their portfolio of products and the number of transactions per month. The threshold depends on the segments.

Loyal customers

customers who consider Santander as their main bank.


(loan to deposits): the ratio of loans to deposits, which measures a bank’s liquidity.


(loan to value): amount of credit extended/value of guarantees and collateral.


Mark-to-market approach

in regulatory terms, an approach for calculating the value of the counterparty credit risk exposure of derivatives (present market value plus a margin, i.e. the amount that takes into account the potential future increase in market value).


(Markets in Financial Instruments Directive): European rules on investor protection in financial products.


(Minimum Requirement for Eligible Liabilities): minimum requirement of eligible liabilities with loss absorbing capacity. It applies to European banks in the same way as total loss-absorbing capacity (TLAC) applies to systemic banks.

Multiple Point of Entry

resolution by multiple points of entry. It entails applying various powers of resolution, both of the local authorities of the subsidiaries of a bank as well as the authorities of the parent.


Net operating income

Gross income less operating costs.


a bank’s ability to reduce its credit risk exposure by setting off the value of the rights against its obligations with the same counterparty.

non-performing loan


Non-performing loan ratio

risk quality indicator. The relation between loans considered as doubtful and total lending.

Non-performing Loan Ratio

(Net stable funding ratio): this requires banks to have a stable funding profile in relation to the composition of its off-balance sheet assets and activities a ratio of net stable funding that ensures a bank has a balanced balance sheet structure, in which stable funding requirements are funded by stable liabilities.


Ordinary profit

profit excluding extraordinary results.


(over-the-counter): bilateral transactions (e.g. derivatives) that are not traded on an organised market.



(Probability of default): this represents the likelihood that a customer or transaction will fall into default. It is the probability than an event (the default) will occur within a given time horizon.

People helped

People who have benefited from the programmes, services and products of Banco Santander, its employees and customers which have a social and/or environmental component in the 10 core countries where the Bank operates. It does not include those who benefit from the Santander Universities Programme or from cultural programmes.


denotes compliance with current capital adequacy requirements, taking into account the transition schedule for Basel III compliance.

Pillar 1

Minimum Capital Requirements: the part of the new capital accord that establishes the minimum regulatory capital requirements for credit, market and operational risk.

Pillar 2

includes the supervisory review process. Internal capital adequacy assessment process reviewed by the supervisor with possible additional capital requirements for risk that are not included in Pillar 1, and the use of more sophisticated methodologies than Pillar 1.

Pillar 3

includes market discipline. This pillar is designed to complete the minimum capital requirements and the supervisory review process and, accordingly, enhance market discipline through the regulation of public disclosure by the entities.



(Quantitative Impact Study): ad hoc requests by the EBA for studies analysing and calibrating the impact of new changes in regulation.



Royal Decree Law.

Recurrent results

Results that come from the ordinary course of business and do not take into account the extraordinary results, that is to say, from a new transaction that normally it is not repeated every year.

Repurchase agreement

(repo): contract whereby the seller temporarily transfers ownership of securities to the buyer, and undertakes to repurchase these assets at a future date and at a preset price.

Risk appetite

Amount and type of risks considered reasonable to assume for implementing the business strategy, so that the Group can maintain its ordinary activity in the event of unexpected circumstances.

Risk appetite

the amount and type of risks considered as reasonable to assume when implementing the Group’s business strategy.

Risk premium

credit risk management metric that relates the VMG to lending.

Risk weighted assets



(return on assets): this measures an entity’s return, calculated as profit before tax as a percentage of total assets.


(return on equity): this measures an entity’s return, calculated as attributable profit as a percentage of capital.


(return on risk-weighted assets): this measures an entity’s return, calculated as profit as a percentage of risk-weighted assets.


(return on tangible equity): this measures an entity’s return, calculated as attributable profit as a percentage of tangible capital.


Return on tangible equity.


(Risk-weighted Assets): calculated by assigning a level of risk, expressed as a percentage (risk weighting) to an exposure in accordance with the relevant rules under the standardised approach or the IRB approach.


Scrip dividend

dividend paid in shares


(Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process): the European Central Bank’s process for supervising and evaluating banks.


Single Resolution Fund.


Single Resolution Mechanism Regulation.


(Single Supervisory Mechanism): banking supervisory system in Europe, consisting of the ECB and the relevant supervisory authorities of the participating EU countries.

Standardised approach

used to calculate credit risk capital requirements under Basel Pillar 1. The risk weightings used to calculate capital are determined by the regulator.

Stress test

Forward-looking examination of the resilience of banks’ solvency referred to hypothetical scenarios.


tangible book value


Tier 1

An indicator of solvency that is between the core capital and the BIS ratio. It relates core capital plus preferred shares to risk weighted assets and is expressed as a percentage.


(Total Loss Absorbing Capacity): loss absorbing capacity of global systemic banks. It enables a bail-in: investors, not taxpayers, assume the losses.


(Tangible Net Asset Value) per share: indicator of capitalisation. Tangible equity, calculated as the sum of equity and valuation adjustments (excluding non-controlling interests) after deducting goodwill and intangible assets/number of shares (deducting treasury shares).


Underlying attributable profit

Attributable profit, excluding non-recurring net capital gains and provisions.

Unexpected loss

unexpected losses (not covered by allowances) must be covered by capital.



metric that establishes the maximum expected loss with a level of confidence and a certain time horizon.


(management of non-performing loans variation): credit management metric defined as the final balance less the initial balance of non-performing loans for the period, plus write-offs, less loan loss recoveries for the same period.

VMG (management of non-performing loans variation)

credit management metric defined as the final balance less the initial balance of non-performing loans for the period, plus write-offs, less loan loss recoveries for the same period.

In addition to the financial information prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), this annual report includes certain alternative performance measures as defined in the Guidelines on Alternative Performance Measures issued by the European Securities and Markets Authority on 5 October 2015 (ESMA/2015/1415es) as well as non-IFRS measures (“Non-IFRS Measures”) . The APMs and Non-IFRS Measures are performance measures that have been calculated using the financial information from the Santander Group but that are not defined or detailed in the applicable financial information framework and therefore have neither been audited nor are capable of being completely audited. These APMs and Non-IFRS Measures are been used to allow for a better understanding of the financial performance of the Santander Group but should be considered only as additional information and in no case as a replacement of the financial information prepared under IFRS. Moreover, the way the Santander Group defines and calculates these APMs and Non-IFRS Measures may differ to the way these are calculated by other companies that use similar measures, and therefore they may not be comparable. For further details of the APMs and Non-IFRS Measures used, including its definition or a reconciliation between any applicable management indicators and the financial data presented in the consolidated financial statements prepared under IFR, please see 2017 Consolidated Directors’ Report, published on February 16, 2018, Section 26 of the Documento de Registro de Acciones for Banco Santander filed with the CNMV on July 4, 2017 and Item 3A of the Annual Report on Form 20-F filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on March 31, 2017 (the “Form 20-F”). These documents are available on Banco Santander’s website (